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汽车起重机综述{论文、答辩}

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal (property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch other, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy st em. 1, t he pri nci pal is the re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school m onthly stude nt knowledg e about safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergency call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, t he esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on, management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol ogical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , student out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brations, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n seve re case s, it is hard to elimi nate immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stai r case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately re pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety syste ms t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

汽车起重机综述
【摘要】随着经济建设的迅速发展,我国的基础建设力度正逐渐加大,道路交通,机 场,港口,水利水电,市政建设等基础设施的建设规模也越来越大,市场汽车起重机的 需求也随之增加。汽车起重机为安装在标准式或特制汽车底盘上的起重设备。本篇论文 根据工程中常用的汽车起重机,以 QY40k 液压起重机为例,对其系统组成、功能、工 作原理进行介绍,并重点对其液压结构惊醒了详细介绍,并对当前国内外的知名汽车起 重机制造厂家,与此同时,结合当前汽车起重机的发展状况,对未来汽车起重机国内外 的发展动态与趋势做一下简单描述。 【关键字】汽车起重机 【正文】 液压系统 发展状况 发展趋势

一、 汽车起重机的介绍 1.1 汽车起重机简介
汽车起重机是装在普通汽车底盘或特制汽车底盘上的一种起重机,其行驶驾驶室 与起重操纵室分开设置。一般有底盘,主起重臂、副起重臂、转台、支腿、回转机构、 起升机构、变幅机构、液压系统、电器系统等组成。这种起重机的优点是机动性好, 转移迅速。缺点是工作时须支腿,不能负荷行驶,也不适合在松软或泥泞的场地上工 作。汽车起重机的底盘性能等同于同样整车总重的载重汽车,符合公路车辆的技术要 求,因而可在各类公路上通行无阻。此种起重机一般备有上、下车两个操纵室,作业 时必需伸出支腿保持稳定。起重量的范围很大,可从 8 吨~1000 吨,底盘的车轴数, 可从 2~10 根。是产量最大,使用最广泛的起重机类型。

1.2 我国汽车起重机的发展
我国工程起重机研制起步于 20 世纪五六十年代,经历了七十年代末至八十年代 的引进、吸收以及九十年代以来的自主开发阶段,国内工程起重机行业历经风雨,自 1993 年销量开始一路下滑,直到 1999 年市场回升。近年来,工程机械市场持续井喷, 全行业出现了少见的普遍景气,每年行业的利润和销售额平均增幅超过 35%。与此同 时,工程起重机行业经历了五年的快速发展,销量屡创新高,我国起重机行业在全球 市场的地位不断提升,行业的竞争更加激烈。 2008 年我国工程起重机行业上半年经历了超高速发展, 下半年随着世界金融危机 的爆发和蔓延,我国起重机市场也开始放缓了增长速度,以至严重下滑,但从全年来 看仍保持了正增长。2008 年全行业销售收入达 272.7 亿元,同比增长 60.2%,利润总 额达到 26.1 亿元,同比增长 46%,销售四大类起重机(汽车起重机、履带起重机、随 车起重机和轮胎起重机)共 2.8 万台,同比增长 12.8%。 2009 年上半年,我国汽车起重机、履带起重机、随车起重机和轮胎起重机等四类 移动起重机市场,虽然受金融危机的影响,市场销售水平明显下滑,但在整体上,市 场仍保持相对比较稳健的发展态势。 2009 年 9 月份,随着我国经济的进一步好转,以及起重机市场 2009 年度第二个 销售旺季的到来,我国起重机市场开始全面回暖。9 月份,我国履带起重机、汽车起
Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppli ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigated for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elem e ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chools shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment, s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job management . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onm e ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool officials or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self -care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue team s of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of safety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activities agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivit ies re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pay attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near t he rivers, reservoirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal ( property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch other, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e a bout safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergency call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on , management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol og ical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , stu dent out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brat ions, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi na te immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately re pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

重机、随车重机和轮胎起重机等四大类移动式起重机市场产销率(市场销量与可供销 量比率)迅速抬升到 62.94%,产销率比上月增长了 6.26 个百分点,比 2008 年同期增 长了 7.29 个百分点。在经过了近一年金融危机的束缚之后,起重机市场逐渐表现出反 弹发展的走势。 随着我国在金融危机时期启动大规模基建投资项目相继开工建设和经济的进一 步好转,未来起重机市场发展将进一步看好。 展望国内工程起重机行业的未来发展,随着中国公路建设的发展和随车起重机技 术水平的不断提高及产量的扩大,今后小吨位汽车起重机必将被性能先进、功能齐全 的大吨位随车起重机所取代。由于全路面起重机具有优越的起重性能,越野能力强, 能够适应不同工作的要求,它代表着全球汽车起重机的未来发展趋势,这也使得几乎 所有著名制造商都不约而同地将其作为重点发展对象。

1.3 汽车起重机的分类
汽车起重机的种类很多,其分类方法也各不相同,主要有: 按起重量分类:轻型汽车起重机(起重量在 5 吨以下),中型汽车起重机(起重量在 5-15 吨), 重型汽车起重机(起重量在 5-50 吨), 超重型汽车起重机(起重量在 50 吨以上)。 近年来,由于使用要求,其起重量有提高的趋势,如已生产出 50-100 吨的大型汽车起 重机。 按支腿型式分:蛙式支腿、x 型支腿、h 型支腿。蛙式支腿跨距较 0?仅适用于较 小吨位的起重机;x 型支腿容易产生滑移,也很少采用;h 型支腿可实现较大跨距,对整 机的稳定有明显的优越性,所以中国目前生产的液压汽车起重机多采用 h 型支腿。 按传动装置的传动方式分:机械传动、电传动、液压传动三类。 按起重装置在水平面可回转范围(即转台的回转范围)分:全回转式汽车起重机(转 台可任意旋转 360°)和非全回转汽车起重机(转台回转角小于 270°)。 按吊臂的结构形式分:折迭式吊臂、伸缩式吊臂和桁架式吊臂汽车起重机。汽车 起重机的基本构造

二、 QY40 型为例,简述其构造 2.1

QY40 全液压汽车起重机外形图
Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppl i ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigate d for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chools shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment, s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job manag ement . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ction s ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool officials or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self-care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of safety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activit ies agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pa y attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reserv oirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal (property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch ot her, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is the re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e about safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergen cy call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on, management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol ogical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , student out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brations, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi nate immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately r e pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

包括发动机,变矩器,变速箱,前、后驱动桥,简称四大件 1. 发动机 2. 变矩器上有三个泵,工作泵(供应举升,反斗压力油)转向泵(供应转向压力油) 变速泵也称行走泵(供应变矩器,变速箱压力油),有些机型转向泵上还装有先导泵 (供应操纵阀先导压力油) 3..工作液压油路,液压油箱,工作泵,多路阀,举升油缸和翻斗油缸 4. 行走油路:变速箱油底壳油,行走泵,一路进变矩器一路进档位阀,变速箱离合器 5. 驱动:传动轴,主差速器,轮边减速器 6. 转向油路:油箱,转向泵,稳流阀(或者优先阀)转向器,转向油缸 7. 变速箱有一体的(行星式)和分体的(定轴式)两种 QY40 型主要参数表 最大起重量 Max.Rated Lifting Capacity 最大起升高度 Max.Lifting Height 主臂 Main Boom 副臂 Jib M 最大起升力矩 ax.Hoisting Moment 最大起升速度(单绳) Max.Lifting Rope Speed 回转速度 Slewing Speed 外形尺寸 Qutline Dimension 整机重量 Weight Data 底盘号 Chassis Model 发动机型号 Diesel Model 发动机功率 Max.Power of engline 最大扭矩 Max.Torque of engine 最小转弯半径 Min.Turing Radius 最大爬坡度 Max.Gradeabilitg 最高行驶速度 Max.Trave Ling Speed 接近角 Approach Angle 离去角 Angle of Departure 支腿距离(纵向×横向) Qutriggers Di Stance m kw/rpm N.m/rpm m % km/h kg m m m kN.m m/min r/min m t 40000 46.8 4 节 11-33.5 2 节 8.5-13.5 1401 118 ≤2 13.65×2.75×3.46 37.51 自制 XZ40 斯太尔 WD615.61 191/2600 828/1600 12 37 68 16 10 5.45×6.2

Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppli ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigated for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chool s shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment , s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gov er nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job management . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool offici als or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self -care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Ji a pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of saf ety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activities agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pay attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reservoirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal ( property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch other, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e a bout safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergency call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on , management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol og ical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , stu dent out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brat ions, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi na te immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately re pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

2.2 工作机构
起升机构

图 2-1 汽车起重机起升结构 起升机构由定量液压马达、减速器、离合器、制动器及主、副卷筒等组成, 如图 1 所示。 主、副卷筒轴前后并列安置,由同一液压马达及闭式圆柱齿轮减速器驱动。 在卷筒轴上装有蹄式离合器,当离合器作用液压缸中通入高压油后,离合器张开 使制动毂涨住,并通过制动鼓带动卷筒旋转。正常情况下,制动器可在制动油钢
Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppl i ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigate d for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chools shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment, s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job manag ement . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ction s ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool officials or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self-care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of safety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activit ies agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pa y attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reserv oirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal (property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch ot her, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is the re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e about safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergen cy call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on, management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol ogical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , student out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brations, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi nate immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately r e pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

弹簧力作用下将卷筒刹住。在吊钩动力升降时,各制动油缸的左腔同时进入压力 油,压缩弹簧,使制动器松开。当吊钩作重力下降时,控制回路的压力油经重力 下降操纵阀进入制动油缸左腔,将弹簧压缩,制动器松闸,同时离合器油缸和回 油路联通,使离合器脱开。此时,制动力矩完全靠踏下制动踏板获得。因此,在 扳动重力下降操纵阀时,必须先踏下相应的制动踏板,否则会使吊重失控而掉下。 回转机构

图 2-2 汽车起重机回转结构构造 回转机构由定量液压马达、减速器机会转滚动支撑等组成,如图 2 所示。 起重臂伸缩机构

Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppli ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigated for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chool s shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment , s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gov er nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job management . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool offici als or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self -care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Ji a pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of saf ety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activities agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pay attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reservoirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal ( property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch other, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e a bout safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergency call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on , management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol og ical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , stu dent out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brat ions, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi na te immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately re pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

图 2-3 汽车起重机起重臂伸缩机构构造 起重臂是由钢板焊制的箱型结构,共三节(基本臂、二节臂、三节臂) ,汽车 起重机起重臂伸缩机构工作原理如图 3 所示。二节臂采用一个单级双作用液压缸 实现伸缩。液压缸倒置安装,活塞杆端头用销轴固定在基本臂根部,液压缸中部 绞点将缸体连接在二节臂后端。因此,当从活塞杆端头通入压力油后,二节臂随 同液压缸体一同伸出或缩进。 三节臂采用钢丝绳系统进行伸缩。伸缩钢丝绳一端固定在基本臂前端一侧, 然后穿过立装在二节臂前端同一侧的滑轮及平装在三节臂后端的滑轮,再穿过立 装在二节臂前端另一侧的滑轮,最后固定在基本臂前端另一侧 。缩臂钢丝绳一端 固定在基本臂前端,然后穿过固定在基本臂前端及二节臂尾部的导向滑轮,在固 定在三节臂尾部。这样,但二节臂在液压缸的作用下向外推出时,通过伸臂钢丝 绳同时将三节臂拉出;同样,二节臂端回时,通过伸臂钢丝绳将三节臂拉回。 伸缩臂钢丝绳端部均装有调节螺栓,用以调节钢丝绳的长度,使之松紧适当。 各节起重臂相对滑动部位(上、下方及两侧) ,都装有滑块,以减少磨损。起重臂 全部滑轮均安装在滚动轴承上,以减少伸缩臂事的阻力。 变幅机构 起重臂的变幅是由一个前倾安装的双作用液压缸驱动。液压缸铰接在回转台 上,活塞杆铰接在基本臂上,以活塞杆的伸缩改变起重臂仰角,实现变幅动作。 液压缸上装有平衡阀,以保持平稳的便服速度,以及防止液压软管突然破裂时起 重臂跌落。 支腿机构 支腿为“H”形。支腿由型钢焊成,两个一组,焊接在车架主梁下表面上。装 有升降液压缸的四个支腿横梁分别装在支腿箱的四个空腹中,可在水平液压缸作 用下伸缩。升降液压缸上端装有双向液压锁,可将活塞杆锁止在任意位置上,以 确保支腿的可靠性。

三、 液压系统

Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppl i ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigate d for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chools shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment, s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job manag ement . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ction s ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool officials or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self-care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of safety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activit ies agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pa y attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reserv oirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal (property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch ot her, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is the re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e about safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergen cy call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on, management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol ogical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , student out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brations, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi nate immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately r e pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

1 各液压回路组成原理和性能分析 QY40 型起重机液压系统图 调压回路:用溢流阀限定系统最高压力。 调速回路:手动调节换向阀的开度大小,方便灵活,劳动强度较大。 锁紧回路:采用液压锁将支腿锁定在一定位置上,工作可靠,时间长。 平衡回路: 采用单向外控平衡阀,防止作业中重物因自重而下降。 卸荷回路:采用 M 型中位机能。 制动回路:单作用制动缸+单向节流阀,制动快,松开慢,确保安全。 2 性能要求 具有独立工作能力;工作过程中可防止“打停现象”和自由摆动;微动性能好。 3.主要元件 泵 3、电磁浮动阀 19、冷却阀 13-3、益流阀 12-3、马达 7、二位三通电磁阀 18、 制动油缸 10-3 4 基本回路 调压回路、换向回路、锁紧回路、卸荷回路、平衡回路、制动回路、同步回路、调 速回路 5 汽车起重机的安全操作 起重机前方禁止作业, 即吊钩重心在起重作业时不得超过回转中心与前支腿(左右) 接地中心线的连线。在起重量指示装置有故障不能使用的情况下,应按起重性能表规定 确定起重量,必须规范汽车起重机操作行为,确保安全无误。起吊重物时不准落臂;必 须落臂时应将重物放下重新升起作业;落臂时油门要小,抬臂时油门要大;回转动作要 平稳,不准突然停转;作业前要认真检查,禁止使用不合格的钢丝绳和起重链;起吊重 物时不准落臂;必须落臂时应将重物放下重新升起作业;落臂时油门要小。

五、汽车起重机生产公司
国内汽车起重机生产公司
Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppli ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigated for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chool s shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment , s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gov er nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job management . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool offici als or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self -care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Ji a pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of saf ety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activities agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pay attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reservoirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal ( property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch other, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e a bout safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergency call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on , management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol og ical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , stu dent out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brat ions, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi na te immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately re pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

中联重科、三一重工、河南郑起、京城重工、柳工、徐工、龙工等。 国外国内汽车起重机生产公司 卡特彼勒 美国 ,小松制作所 、日立建机 日本 ,科勃海尔 德国 ,沃尔沃建筑 设备 瑞典 , 山特维克 瑞典 ,特雷克斯 英国 ,阿特拉斯·科普柯 瑞典。

六、 汽车起重机的发展概况
国内汽车起重机的发展概况 中国的汽车式起重机诞生于上世纪的 10 年代,经过了近 30 年的发展,期间有过 3 次主要的技术改进,分别为 70 年代引进苏联的技术,80 年代引进日本的技术,90 年代 引进德国的技术。但是总体来说,中国的汽车式起重机产业始终走着自主创新的道路, 有着自己清晰的发展脉络, 尤其是进几年, 中国的汽车式起重机产业取得了长足的发展, 虽然与国外相比还有一定的差距,但是这个差距正在逐渐的缩小。而且我国目前在中小 吨位的汽车式起重机的性能已经完好,能够满足现实生产的要求。在不久的将来,我国 的汽车式起重机行业一定会发展成为一个发展稳定,市场化程度高的成熟产业。 许多专家认为,高速发展的市场,是中国汽车式起重机产业各个厂商有利的技术 创新基础和环境。近几年,中国汽车式起重机产业除了一家较小的公司与日本起重机品 牌厂家合资以外,其余厂家一直在追赶国外先进水平的进程中,一直坚持自主的技术创 新道路,基本上没有整体引进国外技术的做法,也使的中国汽车式起重机产业在达到和 接近国际先进水平的同时,在产品技术上有明显的中国特质。 中国汽车式起重机已经大量使用 PLC 可编程集成控制技术,带有总线接口的液压阀 块,液压马达,油泵等控制和执行元件已较为成熟,液压和电器已实现了紧密的结合。 可通过软件实现控制性能的调整,大幅度简化控制系统,减少液压元件,提高系统的稳 定性,具备了实现故障自动诊断,远程控制的能力。 当前我国新一代汽车起重机产品, 起重作业的操作方式, 大面积应用先导比例控制, 具有良好的微调性能和精控性能,操作力小,不易疲劳。通过先导比例手柄实现比例输 送多种负荷的无级调速,有效防止起重作业时的二次下滑现象,极大的提高了起重作业 的安全性、可靠性和作业效率。 部分大型汽车式起重机还在伸缩臂上使用了单缸插销的伸缩技术, 通过液压销作用, 以单个液压油缸可完成多节伸臂的运动,并达到各种工况的程度控制和自动伸缩,改变 了以往能不油缸加内部绳排的作业方式,使起重机相对更轻,拓展了起重机向更高工作 高度发展的空间。 在走向国际市场的过程中,我国汽车式起重机产业近几年品质水平的快速提高,也 得到了国际拥护的高度肯定,由于产品使用规范,用户的专业素质较高,出口产品的质 量反馈比在过内有了明显的减少,产品反映较好。这都为中国汽车式起重机行业的发展 打下了良好的基础。
Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppl i ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigate d for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chools shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment, s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job manag ement . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ction s ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool officials or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self-care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of safety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activit ies agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pa y attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reserv oirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal (property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch ot her, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is the re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e about safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergen cy call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on, management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol ogical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , student out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brations, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi nate immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately r e pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

国外汽车起重机发展概况 目前世界上约有百余家企业生产汽车起重机,但著名的也就右十余家,如美国的格 鲁夫、德国的利勃海尔、徳马克、日本加藤、多田野等。生产的汽车起重机品种有数百 种,90 年代以来,生产,销售各种吨位的起重机万余台。 汽车起重机的市场主要集中在东亚、北美和欧洲。东亚约占销售量的 40%,北美和 欧洲各约占 20%。国外汽车起重机发展的主要特点可以归纳为:多品种生产,标准化程 度高和一机多用。 就分布于三大市场的产品而言,以德国为主的欧洲市场,其产品主要特点为: 1、全地面起重机占主导地位,约占市场份额的 80%。 2、大吨位产品为主,利勃海尔公司占销售额的 70%~80%式 100 吨以上的产品。 3、技术先进,及时采用世界最新的技术成果。 4、专用配套件多,这以为欧洲发展汽车起重机的得天独厚的条件。 以日本为主的东亚市场和以美国为主的北美市场,其产品主要特点有: 1、越野汽车起重机占主导地位,约占 70%~80%,其次为轮式起重机,全地面起重 机所占比例较小。 2、多系列生产,中大吨位居多。 3、注重适应性和经济性。在保证产品性能和功能的前提下,大量采用通用配套件, 而不强调追赶新技术,故产品可靠性较好。 目前,世界汽车起重机的生产,从技术上讲,德国利勃海尔公司略占优势,但从企 业规模上讲,美国格鲁公司居世界首位。而生产量则是日本的多田野和藤加最多。市场 总的趋势式供大于求,面对激烈竞争,国外各大公司除了纷纷增加投资、扩大生产、提 高自身的竞争能力外,还通过联合或兼并来提高在国际市场的份额。如 1984 年,美国 格鲁夫公司收购了英国老牌企业科尔斯公司。 1987 年, 德国克虏伯公司收购了格的瓦尔 德公司,称为当时德国最大的起重机公司,但该公司 1995 年又被美国格鲁夫公司收购。 1990 年,日本多田野兼并了德国法恩公司等。 近年来,随着社会的发展,社会生活中对起重机的需求越来越大,所以起重机的研 发越来越紧迫,由于汽车式起重机转场灵活,从而方便快捷,所以进几年我国的汽车式 起重机发展很快。但是,与国外汽车式起重机相比,国外汽车式起重机技术得到了飞速 发展,为了降低整机成本,提高性能,整机质量越来越小,在起重性能相同的情况下, 自重约比十年前降低了20%左右,由于车辆自重的减小,使车辆采用尽可能少的轴数 (尤其是大吨位起重机) ,这样,大大简化了车辆的结构,成本降低,同时提高了起重 机的作业能力及使用经济性,所以,同等吨位的销售价较前十年有大幅下降,对中国国
Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppli ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigated for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chool s shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment , s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gov er nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job management . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ctions ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool offici als or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self -care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Ji a pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of saf ety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activities agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pay attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reservoirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water

In or der to ens ure normal tea chi ng or der, prote cting st ude nts ' healthy gr owth, ens uring t hat nati onal ( property) is not lost , to prevent or minimize t he occurre nce of safety accide nts, foll ow the "prevent, rescue ea ch other, e ns ure safety and re duce losses" principle , accor ding t o the l oca l condi tions, make the ma nagement sy stem. 1, t he pri nci pal is t he re spons ibility of school safety, s chool s ecurity under t he lea ders hip of Presi dent security work leadi ng group. The hea d teacher to t he lea ders hip team i s res ponsi ble for, impleme ntation of the a ccountability system. 2, school monthly stude nt knowledg e a bout safety education, e ducati on shoul d be diver sified in the form every safety educati on for st udents of clas ses per we ek shoul d be targeted. To carry on emerge ncy i ss ues dealing with e ducation in General, self -hel p and mut ual res cue knowledge . Emergency call s (such a s 110, 11 9, 12 2, 12 0, and s o on) use common sense i n educati on. 3, the esta blishme nt of maj or accident reporting system. School st ude nts report major accide nt withi n a n hour of educati on; student r un a nd disappeara nces t o report; report of the a cci de nt to a written re port i n tripli cate, a correcti onal centre , a police station, a tow nshi p people's G overnme nt shall not conceal t he a cci dent. 4 week, tea cher s are on duty system, establish a nd im prove the leadershi p value s; stre ngthen t he e ducati on , management of tea chi ng activities i n s chool s to ensure normal tea chi ng order; res ponsi ble for s chool safety leaders hip alway s maintaine d cl ose contact a nd district poli ce stations, canvas sing support from the police station on school safety and hel p. 5, stre ngthe ning tea cher s ' moral educati on, e stablish a de dicated love, im proving e ducation quality, obs erve the students ' psychol og ical cha nges at any time a nd take preventive meas ures, no cor poral puni shme nt and cov ert cor poral punishme nt on students , stu dent out of the clas sroom, schools may not be . 6, units or de partments use st udent Street propaganda or participate in the cele brat ions, a s well as partici pating i n other social w ork, without a ppr oval of the Corre ctional Ce ntre, s chool pri nci pals conse nt, without organizati on. Wit hout the approval of relevant departme nts, may orga nize st ude nts to partici pate in fire fighti ng, disaster relief a nd so on. 7, s chool s s hould e ducate student s to obey the s chool r ules a nd reg ulations, on time, on time home to prevent a cci dents . 8, school to s chool i ns pecti ons on a regular ba sis, found hi dden i n time, a nd i n severe case s, it is hard to elimi na te immediately close d, a nd re porte d to the local people's Gover nment, e ducation, and rul e of law secti on. 9, the school s hould al ways che ck the i nternal walls, retai ning w alls, ponds , railing s, handra ils, doors, Wi ndows, stair case s and a variet y of sports, extracurricular activitie s, facilitie s such as fire safety, infrastruct ure s ecurit y, unsafe facility to immediately re pair a nd demoliti on to ensure t hat teachers a nd st ude nts w ork, lear n, live ve nue s and facilitie s are safe a nd rel iable . Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping e lementary s chool March 201 6 song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping primary s chool fire safety systems t o e nha nce fire safety, pr otection of public property and the life and property safety of tea chers and student s, s chool fire safety int o day -to-day management, is developing the followi ng fire safety system. 1, strengthen fire safety education of the w hole school. Accordi ng to the re quireme nts of the Fir e Services A ct, s o that everyone ha s of keepi ng fire contr ol safety, pr otecti ng fire contr ol facilities, fire preve ntion, reports of fire

内市场造成了很大冲击, 因此, 对我国的汽车式起重机的生产者来说是一个严峻的考验。 基本臂是起重机的最主要的部件,它的优劣直接关系到起重机的性能,所以加大对汽车 式起重机的基本臂结构设计的研究,努力创新和借鉴外国经验是当务之急。 【参考文献】 [1] 顾迪民 主编·工程起重机·[M]·中国建筑工业出版社(第二版) [2] 朱新才 主编·液压传动与控制·[M]·重庆大学出版社 [3] 周士昌 主编 ·液压系统设计图册·[M]·机械工业出版社 [4] 扬国平 刘忠 主编·现代工程机械液压与液力实用技术·[M]·人民交通出版社 [5] 赵显新 主编·工程机械液压传动装置原理与检修·[M]·辽宁科学技术出版社 [6] 魏宏宇 ·起重机起升液压系统· [J] ·徐州工程机械研究所 [7] 黄宗益 张建平·工程起重机电子控制· [J] ·上海同济大学 1994 [8] 洪国辉 ·汽车起重机负荷传感系统分析与评价· [J] ·武汉水利电力大学 1996.5 [9] 张泰 ·汽车起重机起升机构动态研究· [J] ·青岛建筑工程学院 1997.03.22 [10]参考网络资源来源 百度文库 百度百科 新浪爱问 道客巴巴 豆丁网

Electricity li nes, equipment i ns pecti ons, found hidden in time for re ctification, mainte nance, a nd security. 9, do not us e an ope n flame in t he classr oom, prohibit burning st ove, lit ca ndles, mosquito re pelle nt, no smoki ng, a nd banning mes sy wiring . Without using a ny household a ppl i ances is not allowed. 10, liv e on campus faculty members , must lea d by exampl e, and e ducate families and chil dren rea dy to fire. 1 1, hous ehold use of gas in schools, to master proper usage, pay attention to the leak-proof, explosi on-pr oof, fireproof, cl osi ng valve after us e to e nsure se curity. 12, dini ng room must be qualifie d, and a nnual testing of press ure ves sels, t o regularly check, t he cantee n workers m ust be certified, strictly by operation operation, gas tank and stove s afety distance of 1 .5 meters, to prevent accide nts. 13 , the a dverse conse que nce s ca use d by ig nori ng fire safety regulations, wil l be puni she d, until inve stigate d for legal res ponsi bility. Song Li n Xi ang Liu Jia ping el ementary s chool March 2016 Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng eleme ntary school, pine slopes s urrounding safety management system 1 量 流 一 创 着 训 教 及 验 经 它 其 司 公 我 合 结 求 要 计 设 和 件 条 质 地 点 特 的 程 了 析 分 , 时 案 方 工 施 本 制 编 teachers and students, t he s urrounding area of the s chool g overna nce cover s pers onal and food hygie ne, cultural eve nts a nd other a spe cts, integrate d governance shall obtain wi de s upport a nd full cooperation of the communit y. On the surr oundi ng envir onment i n s chools shoul d be cl osely monitored. 2, school work at t he same time, shoul d pay attenti on to the safety manag ement of s chool e nvironment, s hould take t he initiative t o contact t he di strict poli ce station, the v illage Committee, Corr ectional Centre, Tow ns hip gover nment, busine ss manageme nt and ot her de partments t o do a good job manag ement . 3, tea cher on duty wit h the excepti on of i nspecti ons i n s chool s, s hould al so pay atte ntion t o envir onme ntal ins pe ction s ne ar the campus, found t hat the j oble ss migrants from r ural areas, for exampl e, hara ssment of stude nts a nd a variety of acci de nts, accor ding to different situati ons reported s chool officials or t he poli ce station in a timely manne r, to prote ct the safety of st ude nts. 4, every day before s chool, tea cher s remind students, pay attention to traffic safety. 5, s hould educate students t o res pect s oci al ethi cs, a nd vari ous regulati ons , maintaini ng publi c or der, and fight the bad g uys, a nd gras p the corre ct ways a nd mea ns of maintai ning and improvi ng students ' self-care ability. 6 , the e stablis hment of emergency re scue teams of tea chers in s chool s, on hig h aler t and depl oyed. S ong Lin Xia ng Li u Jia pi ng elementary school March 20 16 s ong Lin Xiang Liu Jia ping primary s chool tea cher s and students organi zations out of safety manageme nt system organi zation activitie s betwe en tea cher s and students , to dra w up a pre cise plan and se curity meas ures must be sig ned by the school officials t o review t he pr ogramme of activit ies agre ed upon Correcti onal Center agreed t o implement . Organi zation to the field relatively far or a ctivities re quire appr oval by t he De puty Dire ctor of the Educati on Bure au i n charge of se curit y. 2, e ach activity s hould have a spe cific res ponsi bility, pa y attention to t he persons age, physi cal match. Route 3, activitie s, location, field survey s shoul d be carrie d out in a dvance. 4, activities for t he mea ns of transport shoul d explai n the situation to the s chool t o com ply with ve hicle , safety requireme nts, before t he line for repairs. 5 , each activity must have security, emergency re sponse plan for a cci dent s. 6, pi cni cs, hiking, pi cni c to pay attention to fire preve ntion, food poi soning, preventi on of fall accide nts 7, the activities near the rivers, reserv oirs , no mea sures or do not meet the security requirements of the Organi zation a nd not let st ude nts into t he water




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