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NMR-Protein-LigandNMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions_图文

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
A Ligand Interaction with a Protein will Perturb Both Structures
These structural perturbations are reflected by changes in a variety of NMR physical
parameters or observables including: chemical shifts relaxation parameters T1,T2(line-width) and NOEs dynamic parameters (S2, H/D exchange) diffusion coefficients saturation transfer difference transfer NOE Solve a Protein-Ligand co-structure Conformational changes induced in the kinesin structure (blue) by the additional gamma phosphate (green) of ATP

Can Monitor Either Ligand or Protein Changes

DSMM - Database of Simulated Molecular Motions http://projects.villa-bosch.de/dbase/dsmm/

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
NMR Monitors the Different Physical Properties That Exist Between a Protein and a Ligand

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Ligand Line-Width (T2) Changes Upon Protein Binding
As we have seen before, line-width is directly related to apparent MW
a small-molecule (~100-1,000Da) is orders of magnitude lighter than a typical protein (10s of KDa) a small molecule has sharp NMR line-widths (few Hz at most)) protein has broad line-widths (10s of Hz) if a small molecule binds a protein, its line-width will resemble the larger MW protein

τc ≈ MW/2400 (ns)

+
Broad NMR lines

Small molecule: Sharp NMR lines

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Ligand Line-Width (T2) Changes Upon Protein Binding
As a protein is titrated into a ligand NMR sample, the
ligands line-width will broaden if it binds the protein
2:1 L:P 1.5:1

Dramatic increases in line-width at low protein concentrations may indicate multiple non-specific binding
L:P 8:1

5:1

8:1

Free cmpd.

100uM cpd

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Saturation Transfer Difference (STD)
Selectively irradiate protein resonances
saturation pulse of 1-2 sec chain of Gaussian pulses of 50 ms duration separated by 1ms Small molecules that bind will also be saturated small molecule is 20-30 fold excess record difference spectrum 1st spectra on-resonance (typically -0.4 ppm) 2nd spectra off-resonance (typically 30 ppm) only binders will exhibit NMR spectra ligands relax by normal T1/T2 process
Saturation Time

Protein target

Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2003, 42, 864 – 890

Gaussian envelope (selective irradiation) where: to - center of the pulse envelop S - intensity of the pulse a - pulse duration (pulse width) t - time.

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Saturation Transfer Difference (STD)
Saturation transfer occurs during the duration of the selective saturation pulse (τsat)
during this time period (1-2 sec) multiple ligands (n) bind the protein that depends on the off-rate (koff)
koff

P+L

kon

PL

KD =

[ P ][ L] koff = [ PL] kon

weaker binding higher koff stronger STD signal larger the number of ligands (n) that bind during τsat

n = f PB * t sat / t res
Time ligand is in binding site

tight binding ligands (kD ≤ 1 nM) no STD signal, too slow an off-rate

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Saturation Transfer Difference (STD)
NonNon-Binder Binder

WATER-LOGsy – variant of STD where saturation transfer involves bound water instead of protein i.e. saturate water resonance

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Use of Diffusion to Identify Ligand Binding
resonant at different ω consistent with Beff

molecule randomly moves through different Beff, broad range of ω

Effective field strength (Beff) is different at each plane because of varing field gradient (Bz)
Annu. Rep. Prog. Chem., Sect. C, 2002, 98, 121–155

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Use of Diffusion to Identify Ligand Binding

Observed Ligand diffusion is the populate-weighted average of the free and bound diffusion Strength of signal is dependent on rate of diffusion and length/strength of gradient pulse

Magn. Reson. Chem. 2002; 40: 391–395

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Use of Diffusion to Identify Ligand Binding
Decrease in signal proportional to rate of diffusion and strength/length of gradient pulse Compound Mixture alone in the presence of gradient Compound Mixture plus protein in the presence of gradient

Spectra (A) minus Spectra (B). Difference only occurs if the diffusion of a compound has changed Free compound in (c)

Protein and buffer reference

J. Am. Chem. Soc., Vol. 119, No. 50, 1997

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Chemical Shift Changes Upon Ligand Binding
Assigned 2D 1H-15N HSQC NMR Spectra
overlay spectra in presence/absence of ligand changes in peak position indicate binding identity of peaks that change identifies binding site on protein surface if a defined residue cluster is not observed non-specific binding if a majority of the peaks incur changes detrimental interaction such as unfolding or aggregation

Peptide Binding to C-terminal SH3 domain of Sem-5 induces chemical shift changes

Protein Science (2003), 12:982–996.

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Chemical shift changes as a function of sequence identifies the major interaction sites of the ligand

Can be used to generate binding curves and measure KD’s

Can be compared to the structure to identify the ligand binding site

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Chemical Shift Changes Upon Ligand Binding
Visualization of Chemical Shift Changes
color-code residues that incur changes on protein structure

Red residues – changes in chemical shift Green residues – no changes in chemical shifts Blue residues – changes in chemical shift, but don’t interact with peptide

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Chemical Shift Changes Upon Ligand Binding
A Number of Perturbations to the Approach to Simplify Analysis
Simplify the spectra by using specific labeling one residue type (Only His 15N and/or 13C labeled) 13C methyl (1H-13C HSQC, increase sensitivity CH vs. NH) 3 spin-labeling of the protein, large chemical shift changes and line broadening occur if ligand binds near spin-label 19F-labeled ligands TROSY with deuterium labeling for large MW proteins SEA-TROSY only observe surface exposed residues uses a transfer from water to NHs

1H-13C

HSQC CH3 region of 42KDa protein

TROSY

SEA-TROSY

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Number of Drug Discovery Schemes Based on Chemical Shift Perturbations
SAR by NMR
Identify ligands that bind from 2D 1H-15N or 1H-13C HSQC chemical shift changes Identify ligands that bind close but in different binding sites chemically link the two or more ligands binding affinity of the linked compounds is the product of the two individual compounds SHAPES uses a small library of drug fragments and STD NMR

MS/NMR
a tiered approach combining size-exclusion chromatography (SEC), MS and NMR only ligands that bind the protein pass through SEC and are detected by MS collected 2D 1H-15N HSQC spectra only on hits from SEC-MS

SOLVE NMR
target proteins with two known binding sites bind a known ligand to a known binding site measure NOEs from second ligand to labeled active-site residue link two compounds

RAMPED-UP NMR
simultaneously screen multiple proteins that are labeled differently

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Mobility Changes Upon Ligand Binding
T1, T2, NOE Dynamic Data
measure protein dynamic data in presence and absence of ligand residues that exhibit significant dynamic changes indicate binding identity of residues that exhibit dynamic changes identifies binding site on protein surface binding of ligand usually reduces the mobility of a dynamic region of a protein

Differences in free & bound form of protein

Protein Science (2003), 12:982–996.

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Mobility Changes Upon Ligand Binding
Calculated Order Parameters (S2)
decrease in mobility is indicated by an increase in S2 change in mobility indicates binding and defines location

Easier to identify S2 changes by plotting difference in S2 as a function of sequence since magnitude changes in S2 may be small

Major changes typically occur in loop regions site of ligand binding

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Mobility Changes Upon Ligand Binding
Complexity of Models and Additional Dynamic Parameters
a decrease in mobility is also indicated by a decrease in the complexity of the models needed to fit the individual residues T1, T2 and NOE data decrease in the need to use Rex, τe, Sf2,Ss2 for a small-molecule binding, no real change in overall rotational correlation time for a large MW biomolecule, significant increase in τm would be expected

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Mobility Changes Upon Ligand Binding
Map residues that incur dynamic changes onto protein surface
helps visualize ligand binding site rationalize source of mobility change from protein-ligand interactions

Red residues – changes in dynamics and chemical shift Green residues – no changes in dynamics and chemical shifts Blue residues – changes in dynamics and chemical shift, but don’t interact with peptide

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein Deuterium Exchange Changes Upon Ligand Binding
Presence of Ligand “Protects” NHs from solvent
results in a slower NH exchange rate for NHs in ligand binding site Antibody binding site on Cytochrome C

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Complexes From Transfer NOEs
Applied to Systems Under Fast exchange
To observe a transfer NOE: KD > 10-7 M koff > T1-1 collect a standard 2D 1H NOESY experiment Ligands show a single set of resonances averaged over bound and free forms Ligand is 10-50 fold excess relative to protein A strong NOE developed in the complex is transferred to the free ligand state and measured from the free ligand resonances applicable to large MW complexes Observed NOEs can be used to determine a bound conformation for the ligand Change in the Sign of the NOE crosspeak relative to the diagonal

Current Opinion in Structural Biology 2003, 13:581–588

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Complexes From Transfer NOEs
Change in sign of cross peak indicates binding

2D NOESY spectra Positive peaks –cyan Negative peaks - green

No change in sign, no binding

Free Ligands

Ligands + Protein
Chemistry & Biology 1999, Vol 6 No 10

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Complexes From Transfer NOEs
A docked peptide-protein complex based on transfer NOEs

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Complexes Using Multi-Dimensional NMR
Heteronuclear Filters (Spin-Echo Difference Spectra)
S = heteronuclear spin (13C or 15N) H = proton coupled, usually via 1 bond, to S I = proton not coupled to S
The heteronuclear (spin-echo) filter uses the fact that proton magnetization anti-phase to a spin S can be inverted by a π pulse on that S nucleus:

While nothing happens to the in-phase proton magnetization:

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Complexes Using Multi-Dimensional NMR
Heteronuclear Filters (Spin-Echo Difference Spectra)
By recording two experiments, with (A) and without (B) the πx(S) pulse, we obtain:

Two linear combinations are possible to construct:

Isotope filtered: observe 1H attached to 12C or 14N Isotope edited: observe 1H attached to 13C or 15N

In practice, the two experiments (A,B) are interleaved (alternated) to obtain either the desired sum or difference in a single experiment

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
unlabeled MLCK peptide bound to 13C/15N-labeled calmodulin

Protein-Ligand Complexes Using Multi-Dimensional NMR
Protein is 13C and 15N labeled Ligand is unlabeled Observe COSY or NOE cross peaks for unlabeled ligand in presence of labeled protein
Filtered – observe 1H attached to 12C or 14N

12C-filtered

COSY

Ikura & Bax, JACS, 114, 2433, 1992

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Complexes Using Multi-Dimensional NMR
Protein is 13C and 15N labeled Ligand is unlabeled Observe NOEs between Protein and Ligand using combined edited & filtered NMR experiments
Edited – observe 1H attached to 13C or 15N Filtered – observe 1H attached to 12C or 14N NOE crosspeaks to 1H,12C coupled pairs from ligand

Diagonal peaks correspond to 1H,13C coupled pairs from protein

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Protein-Ligand Complexes Using Multi-Dimensional NMR
Protein-Ligand NOEs are added to all other restraints used to calculate the protein structure

3D 15N-edited NOESY Free Protein

Protein-Ligand Complex

NMR Analysis of Protein-Ligand Interactions
Similar Approach Can Be Used For Larger Protein-Protein Complexes
For a homodimer, mix labeled and unlabeled samples of the protein
50% of the dimer would contain one unlabeled and one labeled monomer 25% of the dimer would contain both labeled monomers 25% of the dimer would contain both unlabeled monomers

Intermolecular NOEs from 13C-edited 12C-filtered 3D NOESY spectrum

Dimer Interface

PNAS 2004 101 (6) 1479–1484




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