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Linux系统命令Topfree的使用及参数详解

videoconfere nce , Secretary of the provincial Committee of Xia Baol ong stresse d: thi s year is the "five water treatment" "357" timetable s "for three years to res olve outstanding iss ues, obvi ously worke d," victory of the yea r. The County's de partments at al l levels m ust firmly establi sh t he "guanghui is g old a nd silver" gree n devel opme nt concept, convinced t hat Castl e is not relaxe d, always mai ntaini ng strategic a bility a nd strong determinati on t o improve the e nvironment, consistently playing well "five water treatment of" winni ng the war, ev er-hig her level s of compre hensive w ell-off society wa s built. (A) lay the sewage uphill battle. T his year w e will "river water qua lity improve d at the county leve l, up to five" thi s ba sic obj ective gras p of poll ution control t hat focus, with the focus on t hree thi ngs: a good j ob, "clear rivers" rea chi ng the County created. Organi zation "look back" s pecial inspe ction, the County gar bage River, bla ck and odor ous River is "Dragnet" investigation, timely rectification of problems found i n pla ce firmly to prevent river poll ution rebound. I n accor dance with t he "one -st op strategy", improvi ng the inferi or five water quality monitori ng stations work thi s year to e nsure t he Eliminati on of 1 provincial contr ol , five water qual ity secti on 3 municipalities controlled deteriorati on, e ns ure the creati on t his year of "clear rivers" sta ndar ds. Se cond, pay spe cial attenti on to poll ution-cutting construction of nanotubes. I nterce pting nanot ube s are the basis of poll ution of water source engineering , engi neering, matter of succes s or failure of water manageme nt. Urba n sewage treatment, t o improve " effluent from sewag e treatment rate, running a ccuracy, com pliance" requirement, s pee d up the tow n's s upport network construct i on, i s focusing on nanotubes home "last meters" questi on. Domesti c sewage treatment i n rural areas , this year i s the final y ear of the three -year acti on, determination to fight and the m omentum around, e ndi ng the battle on w hich fully to ensur e the reali zation of all County 648 forme d village coverage. Al so, be s ure to attach importance to focus on r ural domest ic wa stewater treatment facility operation a nd management, e ns ure that wastewater treatme nt facility up and runni ng, rol e pla y, avoi d the "Sun" probl em. T hird, pay spe cial attention to t he River Lake pond desilti ng operation. Pr ovinces now have focuse d on polluti on contr ol of water go t o "dig up mud", a s the dee peni ng water of thi s year's "play s". Next, to jump-start an i nvestigation li ne touches work, impl ementation pla n a ccor ding t o the prioritie s and the programme of work, i n a ccor dance wit h the " one river one pol icy" req uires detailed clea ning, dredgi ng pla n, planning a head of time clea ning out mud "way out", accordi ng to l ocal conditions t o d o sludge, promote scie ntific res ource utiliz ation of silt a nd mud. (B) the heavy reg ulation of he avily poll uting i ndustries. Poll ution of water must gra b the source, wa stewater is primarily the source of backw ard producti on capa city, increas e the inte nsity of

1.作用 top 命令用来显示执行中的程序进程,使用权限是所有用户。 2.格式 top [-] [d delay] [q] [c] [S] [s] [i] [n] 3.主要参数 d:指定更新的间隔,以秒计算。 q:没有任何延迟的更新。如果使用者有超级用户,则 top 命令将会以最高的优先序执 行。 c:显示进程完整的路径与名称。 S:累积模式,会将己完成或消失的子行程的 CPU 时间累积起来。 s:安全模式。 i:不显示任何闲置(Idle)或无用(Zombie)的行程。 n:显示更新的次数,完成后将会退出 top。 4.说明 top 命令是 Linux 系统管理的一个主要命令,通过它可以获得许多信息。这里我们结合 图 1 来说明它给出的信息。 第一行表示的项目依次为当前时间、系统运行时间、当前系统登录用户数目、1/5/10 分 钟系统*均负载(一般来说,这个负载值应该不太可能超过 1 才对,除非您的系统很忙碌。 如果持续高于 5 的话,那么.....仔细的看看到底是那个程序在影响整体系统吧!)。 第二行显示的是所有启动的进程、目前运行、挂起 (Sleeping)的和无用(Zombie)的进程。 (比较需要注意的是最后的 zombie 那个数值,如果不是 0 ,嘿嘿!好好看看到底是那个 process 变成疆尸了吧?!)(stop 模式:与 sleep 进程应区别,sleep 会主动放弃 cpu,而 stop 是被动放弃 cpu ,例单步跟踪,stop(暂停)的进程是无法自己回到运行状态的) 第三行显示的是目前 CPU 的使用情况,包括 us 用户空间占用 CPU 百分比、sy 内核空 间占用 CPU 百分比、ni 用户进程空间内改变过优先级的进程占用 CPU 百分比(中断处理占 用)、id 空闲 CPU 百分比、wa 等待输入输出的 CPU 时间百分比、hi,si,st 三者的意思目录 还不清楚 :)

treatment of heavily poll uting i ndustries. Accordi ng to municipal, a nd muni cipal g overnme nt de ployme nt of seve n big heavy poll ution industry reg ulation "three year s acti on plans", requirements t o De cember 2016 end of Qian, a ll included shut stoppe d eliminate d of e nterpris e all s hut st opped eliminated i n pla ce; J une 30, 2 017 Qian, all i ncl ude d pla ce reg ulation upgrade a nd aggl omeration restructuri ng of enter prise by unified standar d regul ation in place , late not standard of enter prise are implementati on dis conti nue d; J une 30, 20 18 Qian, all inte nds Park producti on of enter prise rel ocation Park i n place , late not Park of are dis continued. In t he proce ss of renovati on, will focus on four as pe cts: to firmly clos e the high energy consum ption and heavy poll ution, hopeless enter prise g overna nce and production lines, elimi nated a num ber of yearly emi ssion inte nsit y, low value -a dde d products of backw ard producti on capa city. Second, we m ust strictly enforce the spa ce, total proj ect "Trinity" 。 能 效 大 最 挥 发 限 有 成 低 降 度 明 透 行 运 加 增 以 法 办 定 特 性 划 计 用 使 金 资 高 提 制 控 程 过 全 产 生 化 强 , 变 转 的 式 方 前 向 理 管 后 事 由 动 活 营 经 项 各 司 公 本 进 促 了 为 environme nt acces s system, promoti ng industry a ccess a nd environmental conditi ons of acces s of e nterprise s to t he Park , industrial park, i n pr inciple, no longer the clas s on the ne w project. Thir dly, prom oting re placeme nt and re construction of heav ily polluti ng industrie s, mergers a nd r eorgani zations , gui de e nterprise s to energy conservation, re cycli ng and low-carbon a nd clea n pr oduction, a nd im prove t he level of green devel opment . Four to establi sh a long-term s upe rvision mecha nism, increas e the i ntensity of s peci al inspe ctions, i nvestigate and puni sh t he r e ctification is not in place , normal busi ness of runni ng anti -polluti on i nstallations do not. (Iii) linkage to promote flood control water, drainage , water s upply, improvi ng water savi ng. S peed up cross Yang support river dike reinfor cement, and along Pu sea wall exce pt insurance rei nforceme nt, and Lake Qian slui ce, a nd BA Cao s lui ce, a nd cloud cover re servoi r, focus fl ood control drainage engi neeri ng constr ucti on, vig orously implementation "strong li brary" "solid di" "spread row" e ngine ering, i ncrea sed ge ologi cal disa ster hi dde n points gover nance efforts, s olid a dvance small ba sin torre nt disa ster governance, efforts from essenti ally sol ution basi n sex, a nd regi onal flood contr ol drainage capacity insufficie nt of proble m. V igorously impleme nt the pi ers, algae a nd ot her water s ources pr otection and, pr omoting r ural drinki ng water safety proj ects, setting up water pri cing reform and environmental protecti on me cha nism, gui ding water dept h. Further soil poll ution and repai r, strengt hen agri cult ural non-poi nt source polluti on preventi on, mountai n, water, forest s, fields, l akes, various eleme nts mutua l long . Four, manage to tighte n control , to play "three to split" battle. Xia Baol ong, Se cretary of provi nci al party Committee stressed t hat whil e the "three to split" operation time i s over three year s, but "three to split" must conti nue t o catch on, and resolve a split cannot be cha nged. All localities and de partments t o the village and "no una uthorised" cre ated

videoconfere nce , Secretary of the provincial Committee of Xia Baol ong stresse d: thi s year is the "five water treatment" "357" timetable s "for three years to res olve outstanding iss ues, obvi ously worke d," victory of the yea r. The County's de partments at al l levels m ust firmly establi sh t he "guanghui is g old a nd silver" gree n devel opme nt concept, conv inced t hat Castl e is not relaxe d, always mai ntaini ng strategic a bility a nd strong determinati on t o improve the e nvironment, consistently playing well "five water treatment of" winni ng the war, ev er-hig her level s of compre hensive w ell-off society wa s built. (A) lay the sewage uphill battle. T his year w e will "river water qua lity improve d at the county leve l, up to five" thi s ba sic obj ective gras p of poll ution control t hat focus, with the focus on t hree thi ngs: a good j ob, "clear rivers" rea chi ng the County created. Organi zation "look back" s pecial inspe ction, the County gar bage River, bla ck and odor ous River is "Dragnet" investigation, timely rectification of problems found i n pla ce firmly to prevent river poll ution rebound. I n accor dance with t he "one -st op strategy", improvi ng the inferi or five water quality monitori ng stations work thi s year to e nsure t he Eliminati on of 1 provincial contr ol, five water qual ity secti on 3 municipalities controlled deteriorati on, e ns ure the creati on t his year of "clear rivers" sta ndar ds. Se cond, pay spe cial attenti on to poll ution-cutting construction of nanotubes. I nterce pting nanot ube s are the basis of poll ution of water source engineering , engi neering, matter of succes s or failure of water manageme nt. Urba n sewage treatment, t o improve "effluent from sewag e treatment rate, running a ccuracy, com pliance" requirement, s pee d up the tow n's s upport network constructi on, i s focusing on nanotubes home "last meters" questi on. Domesti c sewage treatment i n rural areas , this year i s the fi nal y ear of the three -year acti on, determination to fight and the m omentum around, e ndi ng the battle on w hich fully to ensur e the reali zation of all County 648 forme d village coverage. Al so, be s ure to attach importance to focus on r ural domestic wa stewater treatment facility operation a nd management, e ns ure that wastewater treatme nt facility up and runni ng, rol e pla y, avoi d the "Sun" problem. T hird, pay spe cial attention to t he River Lake pond desilti ng operation. Pr ovinces now have focuse d on polluti on contr ol of water go t o "dig up mud", a s the dee peni ng water of thi s year's "play s". Next, to jump-start an i nvestigation li ne to uches work, impl ementation pla n a ccor ding t o the prioritie s and the programme of work, i n a ccor dance wit h the " one river one pol icy" requires detailed clea ning, dredgi ng pla n, planning a head of time clea ning out mud "way out", accordi ng to l ocal conditions t o do sludge, promote scie ntific res ource utiliz ation of silt a nd mud. (B) the heavy reg ulation of he avily poll uting i ndustri es. Poll ution of water must gra b the source, wa stewater is primarily the source of backw ard producti on capa city, increas e the inte nsity of

第四行显示物理内存的使用情况,包括总的可以使用的内存、已用内存、空闲内存、缓 冲区占用的内存。 第五行显示交换分区使用情况,包括总的交换分区、使用的、空闲的和用于高速缓存的 大小。 第六行显示的项目最多,下面列出了详细解释。 PID(Process ID) :进程标示号 ( 每个 process 的 ID ) USER:进程所有者的用户名 ( 该 process 所属的使用者 ) PR:进程的优先级别 ( Priority 的简写,程序的优先执行顺序,越小越早被执行 ) NI:进程的优先级别数值 ( Nice 的简写,与 Priority 有关,也是越小越早被执行 ) VIRT:进程占用的虚拟内存值。 RES:进程占用的物理内存值。 SHR:进程使用的共享内存值。 S:进程的状态,其中 S 表示休眠,R 表示正在运行,Z 表示僵死状态,N 表示该进程 优先值是负数。 %CPU:该进程占用的 CPU 使用率。 %MEM:该进程占用的物理内存和总内存的百分比。 TIME+:该进程启动后占用的总的 CPU 时间 ( CPU 使用时间的累加 ) Command:进程启动的启动命令名称,如果这一行显示不下,进程会有一个完整的命 令行。 top 命令使用过程中,还可以使用一些交互的命令来完成其它参数的功能。这些命令是 通过快捷键启动的。 <空格>:立刻刷新。 P:根据 CPU 使用大小进行排序。 T:根据时间、累计时间排序。 q:退出 top 命令。

treatment of heavily poll uting i ndustries. Accordi ng to municipal, a nd muni cipal g overnme nt de ployme nt of seve n big heavy poll ution industry reg ulation "three year s acti on plans", requirements t o De cember 2016 end of Qian, a ll included shut stoppe d eliminate d of e nterpris e all s hut st opped eliminated i n pla ce; J une 30, 2 017 Qian, all i ncl ude d pla ce reg ulation upgrade a nd aggl omeration restructuri ng of enter prise by unified standar d regul ation in place , late not standard of enter prise are implementati on dis conti nue d; J une 30, 20 18 Qian, all inte nds Park producti on of enter prise rel ocation Park i n place , late not Park of are dis continued. In t he proce ss of renovati on, will focus on four as pe cts: to firmly clos e the high energy consum ption and heavy poll ution, hopeless enter prise g overna nce and production lines, elimi nated a num ber of yearly emi ssion inte nsit y, low value -a dde d products of backw ard producti on capa city. Second, we m ust strictly enforce the spa ce, total proj ect "Trinity" 。 能 效 大 最 挥 发 限 有 成 低 降 度 明 透 行 运 加 增 以 法 办 定 特 性 划 计 用 使 金 资 高 提 制 控 程 过 全 产 生 化 强 , 变 转 的 式 方 前 向 理 管 后 事 由 动 活 营 经 项 各 司 公 本 进 促 了 为 environme nt acces s system, promoti ng industry a ccess a nd environmental conditi ons of acces s of e nterprise s to t he Park , industrial park, i n pr inciple, no longer the clas s on the ne w project. Thir dly, prom oting re placeme nt and re construction of heav ily polluti ng industrie s, mergers a nd r eorgani zations , gui de e nterpri se s to energy conservation, re cycli ng and low-carbon a nd clea n pr oduction, a nd im prove t he level of green devel opment . Four to establi sh a long-term s upe rvision mecha nism, increas e the i ntensity of s peci al inspe ctions, i nvestigate and puni sh t he re ctification is not in place , normal busi ness of runni ng anti -polluti on i nstallations do not. (Iii) linkage to promote flood control water, drainage , water s upply, improvi ng water savi ng. S peed up cross Yang support river dike reinfor cement, and along Pu sea wall exce pt insurance rei nforceme nt, and Lake Qian slui ce, a nd BA Cao s lui ce, a nd cloud cover re servoi r, focus fl ood control dr ainage engi neeri ng constr ucti on, vig orously implementation "strong li brary" "solid di" "spread row" e ngine ering, i ncrea sed ge ologi cal disa ster hi dde n points gover nance efforts, s olid a dvance small ba sin torre nt disa ster governance, efforts from essenti ally sol ution basi n sex, a nd regi onal flood contr ol drainage capacity insufficie nt of proble m. V igorously impleme nt the pi ers, algae a nd ot her water s ources pr otection and, pr omoting r ural drinki ng water safety proj ects, setting up water pri cing reform and env ironmental protecti on me cha nism, gui ding water dept h. Further soil poll ution and repai r, strengt hen agri cult ural non-poi nt source polluti on preventi on, mountai n, water, forest s, fields, l akes, various eleme nts mutua l long . Four, manage to tighte n control , to play "three to split" battle. Xia Baol ong, Se cretary of provi nci al party Committee stressed t hat whil e the "three to split" oper ation time i s over three year s, but "three to split" must conti nue t o catch on, and resolve a split cannot be cha nged. All localities and de partments t o the village and "no una uthorised" cre ated

videoconfere nce , Secretary of the provincial Committee of Xia Baol ong stresse d: thi s year is the "five water treatment" "357" timetable s "for three years to res olve outstanding iss ues, obvi ously worke d," victory of the yea r. The County's de partments at al l levels m ust firmly establi sh t he "guanghui is g old a nd silver" gree n devel opme nt concept, convinced t hat Cast l e is not relaxe d, always mai ntaini ng strategic a bility a nd strong determinati on t o improve the e nvironment, consistently playing well "five water treatment of" winni ng the war, ev er-hig her level s of compre hensive w ell-off society wa s built. (A) lay the sewage uphill battle. T his year w e will "river water qua lity improve d at the county leve l, up to five" thi s ba sic obj ective gras p of poll ution control t hat focus, with the focus on t hree thi ngs: a good j ob, "clear rivers" rea chi ng the County created. Organi zation "look back" s pecial inspe ction, the County gar bage River, bla ck and odor ous River is "Dragnet" investigation, timely rectification of problems found i n pla ce firmly to prevent river poll ution rebound. I n accor dance with t he "one -st op strategy", improvi ng the inferi or five water quality monitori ng stations work thi s year to e nsure t he Eliminati on of 1 provincial contr ol, five water qual ity secti on 3 municipalities controlled deteriorati on, e ns ure the creati on t his year of "clear rivers" sta ndar ds. Se co nd, pay spe cial attenti on to poll ution-cutting construction of nanotubes. I nterce pting nanot ube s are the basis of poll ution of water source engineering , engi neering, matter of succes s or failure of water manageme nt. Urba n sewage treatment, t o improve "effl uent from sewag e treatment rate, running a ccuracy, com pliance" requirement, s pee d up the tow n's s upport network constructi on, i s focusing on nanotubes home "last meters" questi on. Domesti c sewage treatment i n rural areas , this year i s the final y ear of the three -year acti on, determination to fight and the m omentum around, e ndi ng the battle on w hich fully to ensur e the reali zation of all County 648 forme d village coverage. Al so, be s ure to attach importance to focus on r ural domestic wa stewater treatment facility operation a nd management, e ns ure that wastewater treatme nt facility up and runni ng, rol e pla y, avoi d the "Sun" problem. T hird, pay spe cial attention to t he River Lake pond desilti ng operation. Pr ovinces now have focuse d on polluti on contr ol of water go t o "dig up mud", a s the dee peni ng water of thi s year's "play s". Next, to jump-start an i nvestigation li ne touches work, impl ementation pla n a ccor ding t o the prioritie s and the programme of work, i n a ccor dance wit h the " one river one pol icy" requires detailed clea ning, dredgi ng pla n, planning a head of time clea ning out mud "way out", accordi ng to l ocal conditions t o do sludge, promote scie ntific res ource utiliz ation of silt a nd mud. (B) the heavy reg ulation of he avily poll uting i ndustries. Poll ution of water must gra b the source, wa stewater is primarily the source of backw ard producti on capa city, increas e the inte nsity of

m:切换显示内存信息。 t:切换显示进程和 CPU 状态信息。 c:切换显示命令名称和完整命令行。 M:根据使用内存大小进行排序。 W:将当前设置写入~/.toprc 文件中。这是写 top 配置文件的推荐方法。 可以看到,top 命令是一个功能十分强大的监控系统的工具,对于系统管理员而言尤其 重要。但是,它的缺点是会消耗很多系统资源。 5.应用实例 使用 top 命令可以监视指定用户,缺省情况是监视所有用户的进程。如果想查看指定用 户的情况,在终端中按“U”键,然后输入用户名,系统就会切换为指定用户的进程运行界面。 a.作用 free 命令用来显示内存的使用情况,使用权限是所有用户。 b.格式 free [-b -k -m] [-o] [-s delay] [-t] [-V] c.主要参数 -b -k -m:分别以字节(KB、MB)为单位显示内存使用情况。 -s delay:显示每隔多少秒数来显示一次内存使用情况。 -t:显示内存总和列。 -o:不显示缓冲区调节列。 d.应用实例 free 命令是用来查看内存使用情况的主要命令。 和 top 命令相比, 它的优点是使用简单, 并且只占用很少的系统资源。 通过-S 参数可以使用 free 命令不间断地监视有多少内存在使 用,这样可以把它当作一个方便实时监*鳌 #free -b -s5

treatment of heavily poll uting i ndustries. Accordi ng to municipal, a nd muni cipal g overnme nt de ployme nt of seve n big heavy poll ution industry reg ulation "three year s acti on plans", requirements t o De cember 2016 end of Qian, a ll included shut stoppe d eliminate d of e nterpris e all s hut st opped eliminated i n pla ce; J une 30, 2 017 Qian, all i ncl ude d pla ce reg ulation upgrade a nd aggl omeration restructuri ng of enter prise by unified standar d regul ation in place , late not standard of enter prise are implementati on dis conti nue d; J une 30, 20 18 Qian, all inte nds Park producti on of enter prise rel ocation Park i n place , late not Park of are dis continued. In t he proce ss of renovati on, will focus on four as pe cts: to firmly clos e the high energy consum ption and heavy poll ution, hopeless enter prise g overna nce and production lines, elimi nated a num ber of yearly em i ssion inte nsit y, low value -a dde d products of backw ard producti on capa city. Second, we m ust strictly enforce the spa ce, total proj ect "Trinity" 。 能 效 大 最 挥 发 限 有 成 低 降 度 明 透 行 运 加 增 以 法 办 定 特 性 划 计 用 使 金 资 高 提 制 控 程 过 全 产 生 化 强 , 变 转 的 式 方 前 向 理 管 后 事 由 动 活 营 经 项 各 司 公 本 进 促 了 为 environme nt acces s system, promoti ng industry a ccess a nd environmental conditi ons of acces s of e nterprise s to t he Park , industrial park, i n pr inciple, no longer the clas s on the ne w project. Thir dly, prom oting re placeme nt and re construction of heav ily polluti ng industrie s, mergers a nd r eorgani zations , gui de e nterprise s to energy conservation, re cycli ng and low-carbon a nd clea n pr oduction, a nd im prove t he level of green devel opment . Four to establi sh a long-term s upe rvision mecha nism, increas e the i ntensity of s peci al inspe ctions, i nvestigate and puni sh t he re ctification is not in place , normal busi ness of runni ng anti -polluti on i nstallations do not. (Iii) linkage to promote flood control water, drainage , water s upply, improvi ng water savi ng. S peed up cross Yang support river dike reinfor cement, and along Pu sea wall exce pt insurance rei nforceme nt, and Lake Qian slui ce, a nd BA Cao s lui ce, a nd cloud cover re servoi r, focus fl ood control drainage engi neeri ng constr ucti on, vig orously implementation "strong li brary" "solid di" "spread row" e ngine ering, i ncrea sed ge ologi cal disa ster hi dde n points gover nance efforts, s olid a dvance small ba sin torre nt disa ster governance, efforts from essenti ally sol ution basi n sex, a nd regi onal flood contr ol drainage capacity insufficie nt of proble m. V igorously impleme nt the pi ers, algae a nd ot her water s ources pr otection and, pr omoting r ural drinki ng water safety proj ects, setting up water pri cing reform and environmental protecti on me cha nism, gui ding water dept h. Further soil poll ution and repai r, strengt hen agri cult ural non-poi nt source polluti on preventi on, mountai n, water, forest s, fields, l akes, various eleme nts mutua l long . Four, manage to tighte n control , to play "three to split" battle. Xia Baol ong, Se cretary of provi nci al party Committee stressed t hat whil e the "three to split" operation time i s over three year s, but "three to spli t" must conti nue t o catch on, and resolve a split cannot be cha nged. All localities and de partments t o the village and "no una uthorised" cre ated

videoconfere nce , Secretary of the provincial Committee of Xia Baol ong stresse d: thi s year is the "five water treatment" "357" timetable s "for three years to res olve outstanding iss ues, obvi ously worke d," victory of the yea r. The County's de partments at al l levels m ust firmly establi sh t he "guanghui is g old a nd silver" gree n devel opme nt concept, conv inced t hat Castl e is not relaxe d, always mai ntaini ng strategic a bility a nd strong determinati on t o improve the e nvironment, consistently playing well "five water treatment of" winni ng the war, ev er-hig her level s of compre hensive w ell-off society wa s built. (A) lay the sewage uphill battle. T his year w e will "river water qua lity improve d at the county leve l, up to five" thi s ba sic obj ective gras p of poll ution control t hat focus, with the focus on t hree thi ngs: a good j ob, "clear rivers" rea chi ng the County created. Organi zation "look back" s pecial inspe ction, the County gar bage River, bla ck and odor ous River is "Dragnet" investigation, timely rectification of problems found i n pla ce firmly to prevent river poll ution rebound. I n accor dance with t he "one -st op strategy", improvi ng the inferi or five water quality monitori ng stations work thi s year to e nsure t he Eliminati on of 1 provincial contr ol, five water qual ity secti on 3 municipalities controlled deteriorati on, e ns ure the creati on t his year of "clear rivers" sta ndar ds. Se cond, pay spe cial attenti on to poll ution-cutting construction of nanotubes. I nterce pting nanot ube s are the basis of poll ution of water source engineering , engi neering, matter of succes s or failure of water manageme nt. Urba n sewage treatment, t o improve "effluent from sewag e treatment rate, running a ccuracy, com pliance" requirement, s pee d up the tow n's s upport network constructi on, i s focusing on nanotubes home "last meters" questi on. Domesti c sewage treatment i n rural areas , this year i s the fi nal y ear of the three -year acti on, determination to fight and the m omentum around, e ndi ng the battle on w hich fully to ensur e the reali zation of all County 648 forme d village coverage. Al so, be s ure to attach importance to focus on r ural domestic wa stewater treatment facility operation a nd management, e ns ure that wastewater treatme nt facility up and runni ng, rol e pla y, avoi d the "Sun" problem. T hird, pay spe cial attention to t he River Lake pond desilti ng operation. Pr ovinces now have focuse d on polluti on contr ol of water go t o "dig up mud", a s the dee peni ng water of thi s year's "play s". Next, to jump-start an i nvestigation li ne to uches work, impl ementation pla n a ccor ding t o the prioritie s and the programme of work, i n a ccor dance wit h the " one river one pol icy" requires detailed clea ning, dredgi ng pla n, planning a head of time clea ning out mud "way out", accordi ng to l ocal conditions t o do sludge, promote scie ntific res ource utiliz ation of silt a nd mud. (B) the heavy reg ulation of he avily poll uting i ndustri es. Poll ution of water must gra b the source, wa stewater is primarily the source of backw ard producti on capa city, increas e the inte nsity of

使用这个命令后终端会连续不断地报告内存使用情况(以字节为单位) ,每 5 秒更新一 次

*************************************************
top 命令是 Linux 下常用的性能分析工具,能够实时显示系统中各个进程的资源占用状况,类似于 Windows 的任务管理器。 下面详细介绍它的使用方法。

? o o ?

认识 top 的显示结果 统计信息区 进程信息区 更改显示内容 认识 top 的显示结果 top 命令的显示结果如下所示:

top - 01:06:48 up 1:22, 1 user, load average: 0.06, 0.60, 0.48 Tasks: 29 total, 1 running, 28 sleeping, 0 stopped, 0 zombie Cpu(s): 0.3% us, 1.0% sy, 0.0% ni, 98.7% id, 0.0% wa, 0.0% hi, 0.0% si Mem: k total, k used, 17616k free, 22052k buffers Swap: k total, 0k used, k free, k cached PID USER 1379 root 14704 root 1 root 2 root ksoftirqd/0 3 root watchdog/0 PR NI VIRT RES SHR S 16 0 7976 2456 1980 S 16 0 2128 980 796 R 16 0 1992 632 544 S 34 19 0 0 0 S RT 0 0 0 0 S %CPU 0.7 0.7 0.0 0.0 0.0 %MEM 1.3 0.5 0.3 0.0 0.0 TIME+ 0:11.03 0:02.72 0:00.90 0:00.00 0:00.00 COMMAND sshd top init

统计信息区
前五行是系统整体的统计信息。第一行是任务队列信息,同 uptime 命令的执行结果。其内容如下: 01:06:48 up 1:22 1 user load average: 0.06, 0.60, 0.48 当前时间 系统运行时间,格式为时:分 当前登录用户数 系统负载,即任务队列的*均长度。 三个数值分别为 1 分钟、5 分钟、15 分钟前到现在的*均值。

第二、三行为进程和 CPU 的信息。当有多个 CPU 时,这些内容可能会超过两行。内容如下: Tasks: 29 total 1 running 进程总数 正在运行的进程数

treatment of heavily poll uting i ndustries. Accordi ng to municipal, a nd muni cipal g overnme nt de ployme nt of seve n big heavy poll ution industry reg ulation "three year s acti on plans", requirements t o De cember 2016 end of Qian, a ll included shut stoppe d eliminate d of e nterpris e all s hut st opped eliminated i n pla ce; J une 30, 2 017 Qian, all i ncl ude d pla ce reg ulation upgrade a nd aggl omeration restructuri ng of enter prise by unified standar d regul ation in place , late not standard of enter prise are implementati on dis conti nue d; J une 30, 20 18 Qian, all inte nds Park producti on of enter prise rel ocation Park i n place , late not Park of are dis continued. In t he proce ss of renovati on, will focus on four as pe cts: to firmly clos e the high energy consum ption and heavy poll ution, hopeless enter prise g overna nce and production lines, elimi nated a num ber of yearly emi ssion inte nsit y, low value -a dde d products of backw ard producti on capa city. Second, we m ust strictly enforce the spa ce, total proj ect "Trinity" 。 能 效 大 最 挥 发 限 有 成 低 降 度 明 透 行 运 加 增 以 法 办 定 特 性 划 计 用 使 金 资 高 提 制 控 程 过 全 产 生 化 强 , 变 转 的 式 方 前 向 理 管 后 事 由 动 活 营 经 项 各 司 公 本 进 促 了 为 environme nt acces s system, promoti ng industry a ccess a nd environmental conditi ons of acces s of e nterprise s to t he Park , industrial park, i n pr inciple, no longer the clas s on the ne w project. Thir dly, prom oting re placeme nt and re construction of heav ily polluti ng industrie s, mergers a nd r eorgani zations , gui de e nterpri se s to energy conservation, re cycli ng and low-carbon a nd clea n pr oduction, a nd im prove t he level of green devel opment . Four to establi sh a long-term s upe rvision mecha nism, increas e the i ntensity of s peci al inspe ctions, i nvestigate and puni sh t he re ctification is not in place , normal busi ness of runni ng anti -polluti on i nstallations do not. (Iii) linkage to promote flood control water, drainage , water s upply, improvi ng water savi ng. S peed up cross Yang support river dike reinfor cement, and along Pu sea wall exce pt insurance rei nforceme nt, and Lake Qian slui ce, a nd BA Cao s lui ce, a nd cloud cover re servoi r, focus fl ood control dr ainage engi neeri ng constr ucti on, vig orously implementation "strong li brary" "solid di" "spread row" e ngine ering, i ncrea sed ge ologi cal disa ster hi dde n points gover nance efforts, s olid a dvance small ba sin torre nt disa ster governance, efforts from essenti ally sol ution basi n sex, a nd regi onal flood contr ol drainage capacity insufficie nt of proble m. V igorously impleme nt the pi ers, algae a nd ot her water s ources pr otection and, pr omoting r ural drinki ng water safety proj ects, setting up water pri cing reform and env ironmental protecti on me cha nism, gui ding water dept h. Further soil poll ution and repai r, strengt hen agri cult ural non-poi nt source polluti on preventi on, mountai n, water, forest s, fields, l akes, various eleme nts mutua l long . Four, manage to tighte n control , to play "three to split" battle. Xia Baol ong, Se cretary of provi nci al party Committee stressed t hat whil e the "three to split" oper ation time i s over three year s, but "three to split" must conti nue t o catch on, and resolve a split cannot be cha nged. All localities and de partments t o the village and "no una uthorised" cre ated

videoconfere nce , Secretary of the provincial Committee of Xia Baol ong stresse d: thi s year is the "five water treatment" "357" timetable s "for three years to res olve outstanding iss ues, obvi ously worke d," victory of the yea r. The County's de partments at al l levels m ust firmly establi sh t he "guanghui is g old a nd silver" gree n devel opme nt concept, convinced t hat Cast l e is not relaxe d, always mai ntaini ng strategic a bility a nd strong determinati on t o improve the e nvironment, consistently playing well "five water treatment of" winni ng the war, ev er-hig her level s of compre hensive w ell-off society wa s built. (A) lay the sewage uphill battle. T his year w e will "river water qua lity improve d at the county leve l, up to five" thi s ba sic obj ective gras p of poll ution control t hat focus, with the focus on t hree thi ngs: a good j ob, "clear rivers" rea chi ng the County created. Organi zation "look back" s pecial inspe ction, the County gar bage River, bla ck and odor ous River is "Dragnet" investigation, timely rectification of problems found i n pla ce firmly to prevent river poll ution rebound. I n accor dance with t he "one -st op strategy", improvi ng the inferi or five water quality monitori ng stations work thi s year to e nsure t he Eliminati on of 1 provincial contr ol, five water qual ity secti on 3 municipalities controlled deteriorati on, e ns ure the creati on t his year of "clear rivers" sta ndar ds. Se co nd, pay spe cial attenti on to poll ution-cutting construction of nanotubes. I nterce pting nanot ube s are the basis of poll ution of water source engineering , engi neering, matter of succes s or failure of water manageme nt. Urba n sewage treatment, t o improve "effl uent from sewag e treatment rate, running a ccuracy, com pliance" requirement, s pee d up the tow n's s upport network constructi on, i s focusing on nanotubes home "last meters" questi on. Domesti c sewage treatment i n rural areas , this year i s the final y ear of the three -year acti on, determination to fight and the m omentum around, e ndi ng the battle on w hich fully to ensur e the reali zation of all County 648 forme d village coverage. Al so, be s ure to attach importance to focus on r ural domestic wa stewater treatment facility operation a nd management, e ns ure that wastewater treatme nt facility up and runni ng, rol e pla y, avoi d the "Sun" problem. T hird, pay spe cial attention to t he River Lake pond desilti ng operation. Pr ovinces now have focuse d on polluti on contr ol of water go t o "dig up mud", a s the dee peni ng water of thi s year's "play s". Next, to jump-start an i nvestigation li ne touches work, impl ementation pla n a ccor ding t o the prioritie s and the programme of work, i n a ccor dance wit h the " one river one pol icy" requires detailed clea ning, dredgi ng pla n, planning a head of time clea ning out mud "way out", accordi ng to l ocal conditions t o do sludge, promote scie ntific res ource utiliz ation of silt a nd mud. (B) the heavy reg ulation of he avily poll uting i ndustries. Poll ution of water must gra b the source, wa stewater is primarily the source of backw ard producti on capa city, increas e the inte nsity of

28 sleeping 0 stopped 0 zombie

睡眠的进程数 停止的进程数 僵尸进程数

Cpu(s): 0.3% us 用户空间占用 CPU 百分比 1.0% sy 0.0% ni 98.7% id 0.0% wa 0.0% hi 0.0% si 最后两行为内存信息。内容如下: Mem: k total k used 17616k free 物理内存总量 使用的物理内存总量 空闲内存总量 内核空间占用 CPU 百分比 用户进程空间内改变过优先级的进程占用 CPU 百分比 空闲 CPU 百分比 等待输入输出的 CPU 时间百分比

22052k buffers 用作内核缓存的内存量 Swap: k total 0k used k free 交换区总量 使用的交换区总量 空闲交换区总量 缓冲的交换区总量。 k cached 内存中的内容被换出到交换区,而后又被换入到内存,但使用过的交换区尚未被覆盖, 该数值即为这些内容已存在于内存中的交换区的大小。 相应的内存再次被换出时可不必再对交换区写入。

进程信息区
统计信息区域的下方显示了各个进程的详细信息。首先来认识一下各列的含义。 序号 列名 a b c d e f g h i j k l PID PPID RUSER UID USER GROUP TTY PR NI P %CPU TIME 含义 进程 id 父进程 id Real user name 进程所有者的用户 id 进程所有者的用户名 进程所有者的组名 启动进程的终端名。不是从终端启动的进程则显示为 ? 优先级 nice 值。负值表示高优先级,正值表示低优先级 最后使用的 CPU,仅在多 CPU 环境下有意义 上次更新到现在的 CPU 时间占用百分比 进程使用的 CPU 时间总计,单位秒

treatment of heavily poll uting i ndustries. Accordi ng to municipal, a nd muni cipal g overnme nt de ployme nt of seve n big heavy poll ution industry reg ulation "three year s acti on plans", requirements t o De cember 2016 end of Qian, a ll included shut stoppe d eliminate d of e nterpris e all s hut st opped eliminated i n pla ce; J une 30, 2 017 Qian, all i ncl ude d pla ce reg ulation upgrade a nd aggl omeration restructuri ng of enter prise by unified standar d regul ation in place , late not standard of enter prise are implementati on dis conti nue d; J une 30, 20 18 Qian, all inte nds Park producti on of enter prise rel ocation Park i n place , late not Park of are dis continued. In t he proce ss of renovati on, will focus on four as pe cts: to firmly clos e the high energy consum ption and heavy poll ution, hopeless enter prise g overna nce and production lines, elimi nated a num ber of yearly em i ssion inte nsit y, low value -a dde d products of backw ard producti on capa city. Second, we m ust strictly enforce the spa ce, total proj ect "Trinity" 。 能 效 大 最 挥 发 限 有 成 低 降 度 明 透 行 运 加 增 以 法 办 定 特 性 划 计 用 使 金 资 高 提 制 控 程 过 全 产 生 化 强 , 变 转 的 式 方 前 向 理 管 后 事 由 动 活 营 经 项 各 司 公 本 进 促 了 为 environme nt acces s system, promoti ng industry a ccess a nd environmental conditi ons of acces s of e nterprise s to t he Park , industrial park, i n pr inciple, no longer the clas s on the ne w project. Thir dly, prom oting re placeme nt and re construction of heav ily polluti ng industrie s, mergers a nd r eorgani zations , gui de e nterprise s to energy conservation, re cycli ng and low-carbon a nd clea n pr oduction, a nd im prove t he level of green devel opment . Four to establi sh a long-term s upe rvision mecha nism, increas e the i ntensity of s peci al inspe ctions, i nvestigate and puni sh t he re ctification is not in place , normal busi ness of runni ng anti -polluti on i nstallations do not. (Iii) linkage to promote flood control water, drainage , water s upply, improvi ng water savi ng. S peed up cross Yang support river dike reinfor cement, and along Pu sea wall exce pt insurance rei nforceme nt, and Lake Qian slui ce, a nd BA Cao s lui ce, a nd cloud cover re servoi r, focus fl ood control drainage engi neeri ng constr ucti on, vig orously implementation "strong li brary" "solid di" "spread row" e ngine ering, i ncrea sed ge ologi cal disa ster hi dde n points gover nance efforts, s olid a dvance small ba sin torre nt disa ster governance, efforts from essenti ally sol ution basi n sex, a nd regi onal flood contr ol drainage capacity insufficie nt of proble m. V igorously impleme nt the pi ers, algae a nd ot her water s ources pr otection and, pr omoting r ural drinki ng water safety proj ects, setting up water pri cing reform and environmental protecti on me cha nism, gui ding water dept h. Further soil poll ution and repai r, strengt hen agri cult ural non-poi nt source polluti on preventi on, mountai n, water, forest s, fields, l akes, various eleme nts mutua l long . Four, manage to tighte n control , to play "three to split" battle. Xia Baol ong, Se cretary of provi nci al party Committee stressed t hat whil e the "three to split" operation time i s over three year s, but "three to spli t" must conti nue t o catch on, and resolve a split cannot be cha nged. All localities and de partments t o the village and "no una uthorised" cre ated

videoconfere nce , Secretary of the provincial Committee of Xia Baol ong stresse d: thi s year is the "five water treatment" "357" timetable s "for three years to res olve outstanding iss ues, obvi ously worke d," victory of the yea r. The County's de partments at al l levels m ust firmly establi sh t he "guanghui is g old a nd silver" gree n devel opme nt concept, conv inced t hat Castl e is not relaxe d, always mai ntaini ng strategic a bility a nd strong determinati on t o improve the e nvironment, consistently playing well "five water treatment of" winni ng the war, ev er-hig her level s of compre hensive w ell-off society wa s built. (A) lay the sewage uphill battle. T his year w e will "river water qua lity improve d at the county leve l, up to five" thi s ba sic obj ective gras p of poll ution control t hat focus, with the focus on t hree thi ngs: a good j ob, "clear rivers" rea chi ng the County created. Organi zation "look back" s pecial inspe ction, the County gar bage River, bla ck and odor ous River is "Dragnet" investigation, timely rectification of problems found i n pla ce firmly to prevent river poll ution rebound. I n accor dance with t he "one -st op strategy", improvi ng the inferi or five water quality monitori ng stations work thi s year to e nsure t he Eliminati on of 1 provincial contr ol, five water qual ity secti on 3 municipalities controlled deteriorati on, e ns ure the creati on t his year of "clear rivers" sta ndar ds. Se cond, pay spe cial attenti on to poll ution-cutting construction of nanotubes. I nterce pting nanot ube s are the basis of poll ution of water source engineering , engi neering, matter of succes s or failure of water manageme nt. Urba n sewage treatment, t o improve "effluent from sewag e treatment rate, running a ccuracy, com pliance" requirement, s pee d up the tow n's s upport network constructi on, i s focusing on nanotubes home "last meters" questi on. Domesti c sewage treatment i n rural areas , this year i s the fi nal y ear of the three -year acti on, determination to fight and the m omentum around, e ndi ng the battle on w hich fully to ensur e the reali zation of all County 648 forme d village coverage. Al so, be s ure to attach importance to focus on r ural domestic wa stewater treatment facility operation a nd management, e ns ure that wastewater treatme nt facility up and runni ng, rol e pla y, avoi d the "Sun" problem. T hird, pay spe cial attention to t he River Lake pond desilti ng operation. Pr ovinces now have focuse d on polluti on contr ol of water go t o "dig up mud", a s the dee peni ng water of thi s year's "play s". Next, to jump-start an i nvestigation li ne to uches work, impl ementation pla n a ccor ding t o the prioritie s and the programme of work, i n a ccor dance wit h the " one river one pol icy" requires detailed clea ning, dredgi ng pla n, planning a head of time clea ning out mud "way out", accordi ng to l ocal conditions t o do sludge, promote scie ntific res ource utiliz ation of silt a nd mud. (B) the heavy reg ulation of he avily poll uting i ndustri es. Poll ution of water must gra b the source, wa stewater is primarily the source of backw ard producti on capa city, increas e the inte nsity of

序号 列名 m n o p q r s t u v TIME+ %MEM VIRT SWAP RES CODE DATA SHR nFLT nDRT

含义 进程使用的 CPU 时间总计,单位 1/100 秒 进程使用的物理内存百分比 进程使用的虚拟内存总量,单位 kb。VIRT=SWAP+RES 进程使用的虚拟内存中,被换出的大小,单位 kb。 进程使用的、未被换出的物理内存大小,单位 kb。RES=CODE+DATA 可执行代码占用的物理内存大小,单位 kb 可执行代码以外的部分(数据段+栈)占用的物理内存大小,单位 kb 共享内存大小,单位 kb 页面错误次数 最后一次写入到现在,被修改过的页面数。 进程状态。 D=不可中断的睡眠状态 R=运行 S=睡眠 T=跟踪/停止 Z=僵尸进程 命令名/命令行 若该进程在睡眠,则显示睡眠中的系统函数名 任务标志,参考 sched.h

w

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COMMAND WCHAN Flags

默认情况下仅显示比较重要的 PID、USER、PR、 NI、VIRT、RES、SHR、 S、 %CPU、 %MEM、 TIME+、 COMMAND 列。可以通过下面的快捷键来更改显示内容。

更改显示内容
通过 f 键可以选择显示的内容。按 f 键之后会显示列的列表,按 a-z 即可显示或隐藏对应的列,最后按 回车键确定。 按 o 键可以改变列的显示顺序。按小写的 a-z 可以将相应的列向右移动,而大写的 A-Z 可以将相应的 列向左移动。最后按回车键确定。 按大写的 F 或 O 键,然后按 a-z 可以将进程按照相应的列进行排序。而大写的 R 键可以将当前的排 序倒转。

treatment of heavily poll uting i ndustries. Accordi ng to municipal, a nd muni cipal g overnme nt de ployme nt of seve n big heavy poll ution industry reg ulation "three year s acti on plans", requirements t o De cember 2016 end of Qian, a ll included shut stoppe d eliminate d of e nterpris e all s hut st opped eliminated i n pla ce; J une 30, 2 017 Qian, all i ncl ude d pla ce reg ulation upgrade a nd aggl omeration restructuri ng of enter prise by unified standar d regul ation in place , late not standard of enter prise are implementati on dis conti nue d; J une 30, 20 18 Qian, all inte nds Park producti on of enter prise rel ocation Park i n place , late not Park of are dis continued. In t he proce ss of renovati on, will focus on four as pe cts: to firmly clos e the high energy consum ption and heavy poll ution, hopeless enter prise g overna nce and production lines, elimi nated a num ber of yearly emi ssion inte nsit y, low value -a dde d products of backw ard producti on capa city. Second, we m ust strictly enforce the spa ce, total proj ect "Trinity" 。 能 效 大 最 挥 发 限 有 成 低 降 度 明 透 行 运 加 增 以 法 办 定 特 性 划 计 用 使 金 资 高 提 制 控 程 过 全 产 生 化 强 , 变 转 的 式 方 前 向 理 管 后 事 由 动 活 营 经 项 各 司 公 本 进 促 了 为 environme nt acces s system, promoti ng industry a ccess a nd environmental conditi ons of acces s of e nterprise s to t he Park , industrial park, i n pr inciple, no longer the clas s on the ne w project. Thir dly, prom oting re placeme nt and re construction of heav ily polluti ng industrie s, mergers a nd r eorgani zations , gui de e nterpri se s to energy conservation, re cycli ng and low-carbon a nd clea n pr oduction, a nd im prove t he level of green devel opment . Four to establi sh a long-term s upe rvision mecha nism, increas e the i ntensity of s peci al inspe ctions, i nvestigate and puni sh t he re ctification is not in place , normal busi ness of runni ng anti -polluti on i nstallations do not. (Iii) linkage to promote flood control water, drainage , water s upply, improvi ng water savi ng. S peed up cross Yang support river dike reinfor cement, and along Pu sea wall exce pt insurance rei nforceme nt, and Lake Qian slui ce, a nd BA Cao s lui ce, a nd cloud cover re servoi r, focus fl ood control dr ainage engi neeri ng constr ucti on, vig orously implementation "strong li brary" "solid di" "spread row" e ngine ering, i ncrea sed ge ologi cal disa ster hi dde n points gover nance efforts, s olid a dvance small ba sin torre nt disa ster governance, efforts from essenti ally sol ution basi n sex, a nd regi onal flood contr ol drainage capacity insufficie nt of proble m. V igorously impleme nt the pi ers, algae a nd ot her water s ources pr otection and, pr omoting r ural drinki ng water safety proj ects, setting up water pri cing reform and env ironmental protecti on me cha nism, gui ding water dept h. Further soil poll ution and repai r, strengt hen agri cult ural non-poi nt source polluti on preventi on, mountai n, water, forest s, fields, l akes, various eleme nts mutua l long . Four, manage to tighte n control , to play "three to split" battle. Xia Baol ong, Se cretary of provi nci al party Committee stressed t hat whil e the "three to split" oper ation time i s over three year s, but "three to split" must conti nue t o catch on, and resolve a split cannot be cha nged. All localities and de partments t o the village and "no una uthorised" cre ated




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